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Congressional Justification for FY 2011

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National Eye Institute
Department of Health and Human Services
National Institutes of Health

FY 2011 Budget:


Organization chart

Organization chart showing the organizational relationship and structure of the offices and divisions of the National Eye Institute. Office of the Director, Director: Dr. Paul A. Sieving; Acting Deputy Director: Dr. Deborah A Carper; Associate Director for Management: David L. Whitmer. Atttached to the Office of the Director is the Division of Intramural Reserach, with Scientific Director: Dr. Sheldon S. Miller; the Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, with Director: Dr. Frederick L. Ferris III; and the Division of Extramural Research, with Director: Dr. Lore Anne McNicol.

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Appropriation language

For carrying out section 301 and title IV of the Public Health Services Act with respect to eye diseases and visual disorders [$707,036,000] $724,360,000 (Public Law 111-117, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010).

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Eye Institute
Amounts Available for Obligation 1/

Source of Funding FY 2009 Actual FY 2010 Enacted FY 2011
PB
1/ Excludes the following amounts for reimbursable activities carried out by this account:
FY 2009- $15,386,000 FY 2010 - $17,060,000 FY 2011 - $17,060,000 Excludes $2,794,200 in FY 2009 for royalties.
Appropriation $688,480,000 $707,036,000 $724,360,000
Recession 0 0 0
Supplemental 0 0 0
Subtotal, adjusted appropriation 688,480,000 707,036,000 724,360,000
Real transfer under Director's one-percent transfer authority (GEI) -1,130,000 0 0
Comparative transfer to NLM for Public Access -95,000 -103,000 0
Comparative transfer to NLM for NCBI -109,000 -168,000 0
Comparative transfer under Director's one-percent transfer authority (GEI) 1,130,000 0 0
Subtotal, adjusted budget authority 688,276,000 706,765,000 724,360,000
Unobligated balance, start of year 0 0 0
Unobligated balance, end of year 0 0 0
Subtotal, adjusted budget authority 688,276,000 706,765,000 724,360,000
Unobligated balance lapse 0 0 0
Total obligations 688,276,000 706,765,000 724,360,000

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Eye Institute
(Dollars in Thousands)
Budget Mechanism—Total

MECHANISM FY 2009 Actual FY 2009 Recovery Act Actual FY 2010 Recovery Act Estimated FY 2010 Enacted FY 2011 PB Change
Number Amount Number Amount Number Amount Number Amount Number Amount Number Amount
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
Research Grants:
Research Projects:
Noncompeting 791 $309,745 0 $0 119 $44,054 847 $334,316 814 $323,063 (33) $-11,253
Administrative supplements (106) 18,508 (171) 34,160 (45) 8,384 (91) 11,414 (111) 13,915 20 2,501
Competing: 264 98,012 132 50,546 24 19,328 250 94,671 288 111,289 38 16,618
Subtotal, RPGs 1,055 426,265 132 84,706 143 71,766 1,097 440,401 1,102 448,267 5 7,866
SBIR/STTR 47 17,516 4 2,845 7 2,887 46 17,152 47 17,576 1 424
Subtotal, RPGs 1,102 443,781 136 87,551 150 74,653 1,143 457,553 1,149 465,843 6 8,290
Research Centers:
Specialized/comprehensive 40 27,196 1 696 0 0 40 27,604 40 28,432 0 828
Clinical research 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Biotechnology 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Comparative medicine 0 150 0 0 0 0 0 150 0 153 0 3
Research Centers in Minority Institutions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subtotal, Centers 40 27,346 1 696 0 0 40 27,754 40 28,585 0 831
Other Research:
Research careers 64 11,983 15 1,551 0 0 69 12,882 71 13,268 2 386
Cancer education 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cooperative clinical research 33 46,817 18 7,514 0 0 33 46,817 33 47,753 0 936
Biomedical research support 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Minority biomedical research support 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other 14 10,048 0 0 0 0 14 10,199 14 10,403 0 204
Subtotal, Other Research 111 68,848 33 9,065 0 0 116 69,898 118 71,424 2 1,526
Total Research Grants 1,253 539,975 170 97,312 150 74,653 1,299 555,205 1,307 565,852 8 10,647
Research Training:
Individual awards 64 FTTPs 3,030 1 FTTPs 111 0 FTTPs 0 65 FTTPs 3,075 65 FTTPs 3,260 0 FTPs 185
Institutional awards 198 FTTPs 7,313 0 FTTPs 0 0 FTTPs 0 201 FTTPs 7,423 201 FTTPs 7,690 0 267
Total, Training 262 FTTPs 10,343 1 FTTPs 111 0 FTTPs 0 266 FTP 10,498 266 FTTPs 10,950 0 452
Research & development contracts 46 44,036 0 0 0 0 46 45,673 46 48,687 0 3,014
(SBIR/STTR) (28) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (184) (0) (184) (0) (0)
Intramural research 166 FTEs 70,472 0 FTEs 358 0 FTEs 512 166 FTEs 71,529 173 FTEs 73,818 7 FTEs 2,289
Research management and support 75 23,450 0 14 0 1,137 78 23,860 82 25,053 4 1,193
Construction 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Building and Facilities 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total, NEI 241 688,276 0 97,795 0 76,302 244 706,765 255 724,360 11 17,595

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Eye Institute
Budget Authority by Program
(Dollars in Thousands)

FY 2007 Actual FY 2008 Actual FY 2009 Actual FY 2009 Comparable FY 2010 Enacted FY 2011 PB Change
FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
Extramural Research
Detail:
Retinal Disease Research $263,438 $263,374 $256,637 $257,037 $264,398 $270,501 6,103
Corneal Diseases, Cataract, and Glaucoma Research 168,110 168,530 174,848 175,121 184,137 184,296 4,159
Sensorimotor Disorders and Rehabilitation Research 144,556 146,113 161,943 162,196 166,841 170,692 3,851
Subtotal, Extramural 576,104 578,107 593,428 594,354 611,376 625,489 14,113
Intramural research 145 67,298 159 68,594 $166.00 70,472 166 70,472 166 71,529 173 73,818 7 2,289
Res. management & support 69 22,584 71 22,923 $75.00 23,450 75 23,450 78 23,860 82 25,053 4 1,193
TOTAL 214 665,986 230 669,534 241 687,350 241 688,276 244 706,765 255 724,360 11 17,595

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Major Changes in Budget Request

Major changes by budget mechanism and/or budget activity detail are briefly described below. Note that there may be overlap between budget mechanism and activity detail and these highlights will not sum to the total change for the FY 2011 budget request for NEI, which is $17.595 million more than the FY 2010 Enacted level, for a total of $724.360 million.

Research Project Grants (RPGs; +$8.290 million; total $465.843 million): NEI will continue to maintain an adequate number of competing RPGs—288 awards in FY 2011, an increase of 38 over FY 2010. About 814 noncompeting RPGs, totaling $323.063 million also will be made in FY 2011.

The NIH budget policy for Research Project Grants (RPGs) in FY 2011 is to provide 2 percent inflationary increases in noncompeting awards and in the average cost for competing RPGs. NEI will continue to support new investigators while maintaining an adequate number of competing RPGs. In FY 2011, NEI will support new investigators on R01 equivalent awards at success rates equivalent to those of established investigators submitting new R01 equivalent applications. NEI will support 1,149 RPGs in FY 2011, an increase of 6 grants and $8.290 million. Noncompeting RPGs will decrease by 33 awards and decrease by $11.253 million; competing RPGs will increase by 38 awards and increase by $16.618 million.

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Eye Institute
Summary of Changes

FY 2010 estimate $706,765,000
FY 2011 estimated budget authority 724,360,000
Net change 17,595,000

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Eye Institute
Summary of Changes (continued)

CHANGES 2010 Current Estimate Base Change from Base
FTEs Budget Authority FTEs Budget Authority
A. Built-in:
1. Intramural research:
a. Annualization of January 2010 pay increase $26,676,000 $161,000
b. January FY 2010 pay increase 26,676,000 280,000
c. Zero less days of pay (n/a for 2010) 26,676,000 0
d. Payment for centrally furnished services 11,209,000 224,000
e. Increased cost of laboratory supplies, materials, and other expenses 33,644,000 579,000
Subtotal 1,244,000
2. Research management and support:
a. Annualization of January 2010 pay increase $10,728,000 $65,000
b. January FY 2011 pay increase 10,728,000 113,000
c. Zero less days of pay (n/a for 2011) 10,728,000 0
d. Payment for centrally furnished services 4,180,000 84,000
e. Increased cost of laboratory supplies, materials, and other expenses 8,952,000 150,000
Subtotal 412,000
Subtotal, Built-in 1,656,000

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Eye Institute
Summary of Changes (continued)

CHANGES 2010 Current Estimate Base Change from Base
Number Amount Number Amount
B. Program:
1. Research project grants:
a. Noncompeting 847 $345,730,000 (33) (8,752,000)
b. Competing 250 94,671,000 38 16,618,000
c. SBIR/STTR 46 17,152,000 1 424,000
Total 1,143 457,553,000 6 8,290,000
2. Research centers 40 27,754,000 0 831,000
3. Other research 116 69,898,000 2 1,526,000
4. Research training 266 10,498,000 0 452,000
5. Research and development contracts 46 45,673,000 0 3,014,000
Subtotal, extramural 14,113,000
6. Intramural research 166 FTEs 71,529,000 7 FTEs 1,045,000
7. Research management and support 78 FTEs 23,860,000 4 FTEs 781,000
8. Construction   FTEs 0   FTEs 0
9. Buildings and Facilities   FTEs 0   FTEs 0
Subtotal, program 706,765,000 15,939,000
Total changes 244 FTEs 11 FTEs 17,595,000

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Budget Graphs

History of Budget Authority and FTEs:

Full-Time Employees by Fiscal Year

Fiscal Year FTEs
2007 214
2008 230
2009 241
2010 244
2011 255

Funding Levels by Fiscal Year

Fiscal Year Dollars in Millions
2007 666.7
2008 670.7
2009 688.3
2010 706.8
2011 724.4

Distribution by Mechanism:

FY 2010 Budget Mechanism

Mechanism Percent of Budget
Research Project Grants 64
RM&S 3
Other Research 10
R&D Contracts 7
Intramural Research 10
Research Training 2
Research Centers 4

Change by Selected Mechanisms:

FY 2011 Estimate
Percent Change from FY 2010 Mechanism

Mechanism Percent Change
Research Project Grants 1.8
Research Centers 3
Other Research 2.2
Research Training 4.3
R&D Contracts 6.6
Intramural Research 3.2
Res. Mgmt. & Support 5.0

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Justification narrative

Justification of Budget Request
National Eye Institute

Authorizing Legislation: Section 301 and title IV of the Public Health Service Act, as amended.

FY 2009 Appropriation FY 2010 Appropriation FY 2011 President's Budget Increase or Decrease
BA $688,276,000 $706,765,000 $724,360,000 $17,595,000
FTE 241 244 255 11

This document provides justification for the Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 activities of the National Eye Institute (NEI), including HIV/AIDS activities. Details of the FY 2011 HIV/AIDS activities are in the “Office of AIDS Research (OAR)” Section of the Overview. Details on the Common Fund are located in the Overview, Volume One. Program funds are allocated as follows: Competitive Grants/Cooperative Agreements; Contracts; Direct Federal/Intramural and Other.

Director’s Overview

The National Eye Institute’s (NEI) mission is to conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind. These investigations are conducted in hundreds of laboratories and clinics throughout the U.S. and in NEI intramural research facilities in Bethesda, Maryland.

Applying Unprecedented Opportunities in Genomics
In recognition of the 40th anniversary of NEI, Congress designated 2010 through 2020 as the “Decade of Vision”, a resolution that recognizes the potential of eye and vision research in the coming decade. NEI investigators are capitalizing on the remarkable progress made by the Human Genome Project and have recently submitted Genome- Wide Association Studies (GWAS) datasets for Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD), as well as a twin study of risk factors for glaucoma and Myopia, to the public domain (dBGap). Using the newest technologies, this latest GWAS of AMD included 5 times more information and over 6 times more patient samples than the pioneering submission of four years ago. NEI recognizes its central role in providing leadership and resources to maintain momentum in this area and recently held a Functional Genomics Workshop that included expertise in vision, genetics and computation as part of its ongoing strategic planning efforts. A new position, Associate Director for Ophthalmic Genetics, was created to insure implementation of opportunities such as GWAS of Glaucoma (see program portrait). In parallel, NEI established GLAUGEN (Gene-Environment interactions in glaucoma)— through the NIH Gene-Environment Initiative (GEI)— to identify the relationships of environmental exposures to gene-trait associations in common, complex diseases.

eyeGENE is a new and critical NEI resource. eyeGENE operates as a partnership of 20 academic research labs across the nation that work collaboratively to elucidate the genetic basis of eye disease. eyeGENE is creating a centralized repository of DNA patient samples and clinical diagnostic information for vision researchers. Patients and their doctors receive genetic information during their participation in eyeGENE. Over the last year, eyeGENE expanded by adding more laboratories and has collected over 1200 patient samples. eyeGENE improves patient care while furthering research knowledge.

Translating Basic Science Discoveries into New and Better Treatments
Recently published one-year follow-up results of gene transfer in patients with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a severe, early onset retinal disease, indicate that the treatment is safe with evidence of lasting visual improvement. Follow-up studies will evaluate gene transfer in younger patients with less severe disease, which may prove to be more efficacious. These encouraging findings are considered “proof-of-concept” that could help usher several other gene-based therapies for retinitis pigmentosa, macular degeneration, and related retinal diseases into clinical trials.

In a unique interagency collaboration, NEI and NASA scientists developed a new diagnostic technology that pre-symptomatically identifies those at risk for cataract development. The device uses dynamic light scattering to measure the amount of alpha crystallin in the lens. Alpha crystallin retards cataract development. Humans are born with a fixed amount of alpha crystallins, and cataract formation begins when the supply of alpha crystallin is exhausted. This new clinical tool allows clinicians to monitor lens health and study preventive or therapeutic actions that may delay or eliminate the onset of cataract formation and blindness.

Putting Science to Work for the Benefit of Health Care Reform
NEI investigators are conducting several comparative effectiveness clinical trials to improve ophthalmic care. Laser treatment is a standard of care for diabetic eye disease where abnormal blood vessel growth damages the retina. However, recent evidence suggests that treatment with various drugs may deliver a better outcome. The Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) will initiate three new clinical trials comparing the safety and efficacy of drug therapies as an alternative to laser treatment for diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

The Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT) is a multi-center study evaluating the efficacy of Lucentis and Avastin. Lucentis was approved by the FDA in 2006 for treatment of AMD. Retinal specialists frequently use a far less costly alternative, Avastin, off-label and have evidence that it is safe and effective. CATT is the only controlled, well-designed comparison of the two drugs. Results from the CATT study are expected in FY 2011.

Encouraging a Greater Focus on Global Health
Trachoma is a leading cause of blindness in the developing world affecting an estimated 8 million people. Repeated infections cause scarring of the transparent cornea, leading to irreversible blindness. Intervention programs with the oral antibiotic azithromycin have been successful in eradicating the disease in areas with moderate levels of trachoma. However, in severely affected communities, infection returns rapidly after treatment. In a recent NEI-supported clinical trial, investigators observed eradication of trachoma in severely affected communities after a multi-dose treatment course. They also found that azithromycin led to a sharp reduction in childhood mortality, likely through concomitant treatment of respiratory infections, gastrointestinal diseases, malaria and other endemic diseases. These results provide strong rationale for intervention in areas severely affected by trachoma.

Reinvigorating and Empowering the Biomedical Research Community
The increasingly quantitative nature of the biomedical sciences and the explosive growth of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, neurophysiological and clinical data require that investigators work at the interface of biology and computational sciences. The NEI is committed to developing the next generation of vision researchers and has expanded its institutional training grant program with a program in ocular statistical genetics at several universities. This program will partner researchers with expertise in mathematics, modeling and computation, fields that are not usually affiliated with ocular research, with researchers in all areas of vision science to provide state-ofthe art training for a new breed of researchers. The program parallels the establishment of the NEI’s intramural program of Computational Medicine and Biology (see program portrait).

Overall Budget Policy: The FY 2011 request for NEI is $724.360 million, an increase of $17.595 or +2.5% over the FY 2010 Enacted level. NEI will continue to support new investigators and to maintain an adequate number of competing RPGs. NEI will provide a 2 percent inflationary increase for non-competing and competing grants. The first priority will continue to be funding the highest quality investigator-initiated research applications, determined by the scientific and technical merit of the application as evaluated through the peer review system. Intramural Research and Research Management and Support will receive modest increases to help offset the cost of pay and other increases.

Funds are included in R&D contracts to support several trans-NIH initiatives, such as the Therapies for Rare and Neglected Diseases program (TRND), the Basic Behavioral and Social Sciences Opportunity Network (OppNet), and support for a new synchrotron at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, as well as increased support for other HHS agencies through the program evaluation set-aside.

FY 2011 Justification by Program

Program Descriptions and Accomplishments

Retinal Diseases Research:
The light-sensitive retina of the eye is susceptible to many sight-threatening conditions including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, retinitis pigmentosa, Usher's syndrome, ocular albinism, retinal detachment, uveitis (inflammation), and eye cancer. The goals of this program are to increase the understanding of disease mechanisms that cause vision loss and to develop improved methods of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. To meet these goals, NEI supports research on the cell biology, physiology, and immunology of the retina and on the role of gene expression, gene regulation, and the environment in retinal health and disease. NEI investigators have identified gene variants for many of these diseases and have made significant progress in discovering the underlying biological mechanisms of vision loss. Some gene variants are associated with higher risk while others appear to confer a protective effect. With this knowledge, efforts are now increasingly focused on translational research to advance novel gene-based therapies to clinical trials.

Budget Policy:
The FY 2011 budget estimate for these activities is $270.501 million, an increase of $6.103 million or 2.3 percent over the FY 2010 Enacted. FY 2011 program plans will focus on an acceleration of research on the genetic and environmental basis for AMD, including the role of possible immunological factors. This will include an expansion of genome wide association studies and related efforts in bioinformatics. NEI will support projects that address the possible restoration of vision in retinal degenerative diseases by building on recent advances in gene transfer, cell transplantation and precursor cell biology. Research will continue in efforts to control abnormal new blood vessel growth (angiogenesis) in a number of eye diseases, and will include the conduct of clinical trials in this area. Program plans also include the continuation of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2), a multi-center study to evaluate the use of additional oral supplements for the treatment of AMD and cataract. NEI also plans to continue collaborating with the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute on the follow-up ocular component of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) study.

Corneal Diseases, Cataract, and Glaucoma Research:
Corneal diseases, cataract, and glaucoma—disorders of the anterior segment (front) of the eye—cause more visits to ophthalmologists than any other vision disorders. Corneal injuries, infections and diseases can be extremely painful and require immediate medical attention. NEI grantees are exploring how infectious, inflammatory, and immunological processes affect the cornea, and how the cornea heals after a wound. Important proteins that promote and deter wound healing have been identified, providing an opportunity to develop therapies that prevent or ameliorate corneal disease. Worldwide, cataracts are the leading cause of blindness. NEI cataract research seeks to understand the physiological basis of lens transparency at the cellular and molecular levels and investigates strategies to prevent cataract formation and progression. Glaucoma is a blinding disease that most often results from increased intraocular pressure. NEI investigators aim to understand the complex genetic and biological factors that cause the disease and to develop treatments that protect optic nerves from the damage that leads to vision loss.

Budget Policy:
The FY 2011 budget estimate for these activities is $184.296 million, an increase of $4.159 million or 2.3 percent over the FY 2010 Enacted. FY 2011 program plans include following up on a recent finding that certain receptors that bind to vascular endothelial growth factor may play an important role in maintaining the normal transparency of the cornea. NEI expects to fund new projects to identify therapeutic approaches to limit and/or reduce corneal pain. Projects will be funded to examine the possible contribution of defects in gap junctions in the development of cataracts. Genome wide association studies and related bioinformatics efforts will be launched to explore further the role of genetics and the environment on the development of glaucoma and to understand better the differential response of individuals to glaucoma medications.

The Genetics of Glaucoma

FY 2010 Level: $ 3.400 million
FY 2011 Level: $ 2.500 million
Change: $-0.900 million

Glaucoma is a family of diseases characterized by progressive vision loss due to degeneration of the optic nerve. It is the leading cause of blindness among Hispanic and African Americans and is the third most prevalent cause of visual impairment and blindness among Caucasian Americans. The most common form of glaucoma, primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) occurs primarily in adults. POAG has a significant genetic predisposition, i.e., sibling risk is about ten times that of the general population. Traditional genetic approaches using large pedigrees affected by POAG have led to the identification of 14 major genetic loci associated with the disease. Genes that contribute to rare (Mendelian) forms of glaucoma have been identified in three of these regions. To identify common genetic variants that are associated with this genetically complex disease, large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are needed.

To acquire meaningful information for GWAS studies, large numbers of patients are required to obtain enough data for statistical power. This requires a coordinated effort by researchers working closely with clinicians who identify patients. NEI recently established the NEI Human Genetics Collaboration (NEIGHBOR), a consortium of clinicians and geneticists at 12 institutions throughout the United States dedicated to identifying the genetics of glaucoma. The NEIGHBOR consortium will combine data from more than 4000 individuals (2000 cases and 2000 controls) to initiate large-scale GWAS for identifying genetic variants associated with glaucoma. These efforts will greatly aid in the understanding of glaucoma and in the ultimate goal of developing more effective treatments for this blinding disease.

Sensorimotor Disorders and Rehabilitation Research:
Strabismus (misalignment of the eyes) and amblyopia (known as "lazy eye") are common sensorimotor disorders that develop during childhood. Program goals center on gaining a better understanding of the neuromuscular control of gaze and the development of the visual system in children at high risk for these disorders. Refractive errors, such as nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia) and astigmatism, are commonly correctable with eye glasses or contact lenses in the US but remain a tremendous economic and personal burden globally. The major goal of this program is to discover the biochemical pathways that govern eye growth to uncover the risk factors associated with refractive errors. Much of the cerebral cortex is devoted to processing the visual information that floods our eyes. Vision scientists seek to understand how the brain processes visual information, how neural activity is related to visual perception, and how the visual system interacts with cognitive and motor systems. Low vision is the term used to describe chronic visual conditions that are not correctable by eye glasses or contact lenses. The NEI supports rehabilitation research on improving the quality of life of persons with visual impairments by helping them maximize the use of remaining vision and by devising improved aids and strategies to assist those without useful vision.

Budget Policy:
The FY 2011 budget estimate for these activities is $170.692 million, an increase of $3.851 million or 2.3 percent over the FY 2010 Enacted. FY 2011 program plans include pursuing research to find the genes involved in strabismus, myopia, and Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy, a genetic disease that frequently results in a substantial loss of central vision. The newly formed Neuro-Ophthalmology Research Disease Investigator Consortium will expand greatly to include many new sites to facilitate recruitment and the conducting of clinical trials. Investigators will also pursue new findings about how the activity of certain brain cells allows us to perceive a stable view of our surroundings despite constant head and eye movements, as highlighted in NEI’s strategic plan.

Intramural Research:
Program activities include: clinical and translational studies concerned with the cause, prevention, and treatment of major eye diseases and vision disorders; basic research on cellular and molecular mechanisms of eye development, including the expression and function of genes within the eye; research in immunology and infectious diseases of the eye; understanding the mechanisms of visual perception by the brain, and developing a better understanding of our critical ability to guide movements under sensory control. The National Ophthalmic Disease Genotyping Network (eyeGENE), a collaboration of patients, clinicians, and investigators throughout the U.S., has expanded its operations by collecting more than 1200 patient DNA samples. eyeGENE enables patients to receive a genetic diagnosis for many rare eye diseases in exchange for donating DNA samples for research and participating in a clinical trial registry. Through this unique collaboration, eyeGENE is enhancing patient care, education and research.

Budget Policy:
The FY 2011 budget estimate for this program is $73.818 million, an increase of $2.289 million or 3.2 percent over the FY 2010 Enacted. In FY 2011, NEI will continue recruiting investigators for the recently established Laboratory of Neurobiology, Neurodegeneration and Repair to integrate basic, pre-clinical, and translation research in developing and testing therapeutic interventions in neurodegenerative eye diseases. NEI is building its capacity in pre-clinical animal model evaluation and development, expanding its Genetic Engineering Facility in support of a new initiative to develop human embryonic stem cells for therapeutic use in retinal degenerative and other ocular diseases, and developing a new visual function facility with expertise in electroretinography and optical coherence tomography. NEI is also creating a new laboratory in computational medicine and plans to enhance the Ophthalmic Genetics and Visual Function Branch and expand the eyeGENE network to facilitate research on the genetic causes of ocular diseases.

Establishment of the NEI Laboratory of Computational Medicine and Biology

FY 2010 Level: $3.000 million
FY 2011 Level: $3.500 million
Change: $0.500 million

The nature of medicine and biomedical investigation is changing rapidly. There is an urgent need to integrate physical, chemical and mathematical sciences with biology to uncover cell mechanisms and pathways that, once fully characterized, can be modulated for medical purposes. New technologies are evolving rapidly, leading to an exponential increase in the volume of available data generated in fields such as genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. These data need to be matched to genetic information (genotype) and disease characteristics from patients (phenotype). This requires a large body of knowledge in well-designed databases that are readily accessible to vision researchers. Further, our understanding of individual biochemical pathways in cells and their interactions with other pathways and systems is just beginning. The immense quantity of information and numbers of interactions will require novel and sophisticated mathematical and statistical methods to help uncover the nature of these complex interactions in disease and health states.

To meet these challenges, the NEI intramural research program (IRP) will initiate a new program in Computational Medicine and Biology that will integrate the disciplines of systems biology and informatics within the NEI IRP. The NEI program will begin by leveraging the computational resources currently available at NIH and will design a collaborative program that interfaces with the larger NIHwide effort. This program will provide the NEI IRP with increased ability to meld biological information to clinical care, based on rapidly evolving knowledge of the genetic basis of disease, including gene expression, protein structure, protein-protein interaction and biological networks.

Research Management and Support:
Research Management and Support (RMS) sustains, guides, and monitors the extramural and intramural research programs. Included in these funds are the support necessary for personnel to carry out leadership and management functions, human resource support, training, travel, purchasing, facilities, budget, planning, information technology, and extramural grant award and management. NEI currently oversees more than 1,300 grants and contracts, including research project grants, core center grants, research career development awards, cooperative clinical research agreements, and research and development contracts.

Budget Policy:
The FY 2011 budget estimate for these activities is $25.053 million, an increase of $1.193 million or 5.0 percent over the FY 2010 Enacted. This increase reflects NIH policy and will be used to help offset the cost of pay and other increases.

Recovery Act Implementation
Recovery Act Funding: $ 174.097 million

In FY 2009, NEI received $174.1 million under the Recovery Act. Of this amount, $97.8 million was obligated in FY 2009 and $76.3 million will be obligated in FY 2010. The scientific impact of NEI Recovery Act investments already encompasses several significant accomplishments:

In the area of Comparative Effectiveness Research, vision scientists have applied a new analytic technique, mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis (MTC), to data from published phase III clinical trials of various therapies for primary open angle glaucoma. MTC allows investigators to compare the therapeutic merits of multiple interventions without having to conduct additional multi-armed clinical trials. MTC results will have a substantial impact on clinical practice.

The economic impact of blindness in the U.S. is estimated at nearly $50 billion annually. NEI Recovery Act funding is supporting a clinical study of the Argus II retinal prosthesis. This implanted electrode array, used with a spectacle-supported video camera and a small computer, already has achieved the important milestone of home use for a few profoundly blind subjects. A successful outcome of this pre-market study will provide evidence for regulatory approval that could lead to delivery of this therapy to tens of thousands of blind Americans, allowing increased independence and mobility.

NEI’s signature ARRA project, the NEI Human Genetics Collaboration (NEIGHBOR) is described in the Genetics of Glaucoma program portrait.

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Eye Institute
Budget Authority by Object

Total compensable workyears FY 2010 Enacted FY 2011 PB Increase or Decrease
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
Full-time employment 244 255 11
Full-time equivalent of overtime and holiday hours 0 0 0
Average ES salary $161,000 $164,100 $2,300
Average GM/GS grade 12.1 12.1 0.0
Average GM/GS salary $101,900 $103,300 $1,400
Average salary, grade established by act of July 1, 1944 (42 U.S.C. 207) $77,900 $79,000 $1,100
Average salary of ungraded positions $127,900 $129,700 $1,800

Budget Authority by Object
(continued)

OBJECT CLASSES FY 2010 Estimate FY 2011 Estimate Increase or Decrease
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
Personnel Compensation:
11.1 Full-time permanent $15,155,000 $16,128,000 $973,000
11.3 Other than full-time permanent 10,622,000 11,269,000 647,000
11.5 Other personnel compensation 828,000 879,000 51,000
11.7 Military personnel 284,000 301,000 17,000
11.8 Special personnel services payments 3,026,000 3,207,000 181,000
Total, Personnel Compensation 29,915,000 31,784,000 1,869,000
12.0 Personnel benefits 7,284,000 7,740,000 456,000
12.2 Military personnel benefits 205,000 217,000 12,000
13.0 Benefits for former personnel 0 0 0
Subtotal, Pay Costs 37,404,000 39,741,000 2,337,000
21.0 Travel and transportation of persons 760,000 777,000 17,000
22.0 Transportation of things 53,000 54,000 1,000
23.1 Rental payments to GSA 2,000 2,000 0
23.2 Rental payments to others 7,000 7,000 0
23.3 Communications, utilities and miscellaneous charges 492,000 514,000 22,000
24.0 Printing and reproduction 184,000 191,000 7,000
25.1 Consulting services 39,000 41,000 2,000
25.2 Other services 7,997,000 8,137,000 140,000
25.3 Purchase of goods and services from government accounts 57,364,000 60,398,000 3,034,000
25.4 Operation and maintenance of facilities 181,000 185,000 4,000
25.5 Research and development contracts 25,113,000 25,832,000 719,000
25.6 Medical care 118,000 119,000 1,000
25.7 Operation and maintenance of equipment 4,432,000 4,532,000 100,000
25.8 Subsistence and support of persons 0 0 0
25.0 Subtotal, Other Contractual Services 95,244,000 99,244,000 4,000,000
26.0 Supplies and materials 4,727,000 4,788,000 61,000
31.0 Equipment 2,186,000 2,237,000 51,000
32.0 Land and structures 0 0 0
33.0 Investments and loans 0 0 0
41.0 Grants, subsidies and contributions 565,703,000 576,802,000 11,099,000
42.0 Insurance claims and indemnities 0 0 0
43.0 Interest and dividends 3,000 3,000 0
44.0 Refunds 0 0 0
Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs 669,361,000 684,619,000 15,258,000
Total Budget Authority by Object 706,765,000 724,360,000 17,595,000

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Eye Institute
Salaries and expenses

OBJECT CLASSES FY 2010 Enacted FY 2011 PB Increase or Decrease
Personnel Compensation:
Full-time permanent (11.1) $15,155,000 $16,128,000 $973,000
Other than full-time permanent (11.3) 10,622,000 11,269,000 647,000
Other personnel compensation (11.5) 828,000 879,000 51,000
Military personnel (11.7) 284,000 301,000 17,000
Special personnel services payments (11.8) 3,026,000 3,207,000 181,000
Total Personnel Compensation (11.9) 29,915,000 31,784,000 1,869,000
Civilian personnel benefits (12.1) 7,284,000 7,740,000 456,000
Military personnel benefits (12.2) 205,000 217,000 12,000
Benefits to former personnel (13.0) 0 0 0
Subtotal, Pay Costs 37,404,000 39,741,000 2,337,000
Travel (21.0) 760,000 777,000 17,000
Transportation of things (22.0) 53,000 54,000 1,000
Rental payments to others (23.2) 7,000 7,000 0
Communications, utilities and miscellaneous charges (23.3) 492,000 514,000 22,000
Printing and reproduction (24.0) 184,000 191,000 7,000
Other Contractual Services:
Advisory and assistance services (25.1) 39,000 41,000 2,000
Other services (25.2) 7,997,000 8,137,000 140,000
Purchases from government accounts (25.3) 38,400,000 39,257,000 857,000
Operation and maintenance of facilities (25.4) 181,000 185,000 4,000
Operation and maintenance of equipment (25.7) 4,432,000 4,532,000 100,000
Subsistence and support of persons (25.8) 0 0 0
Subtotal Other Contractual Services 51,049,000 52,152,000 1,103,000
Supplies and materials (26.0) 4,713,000 4,774,000 61,000
Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs 57,258,000 58,469,000 1,211,000
Total, Administrative Costs 94,662,000 98,210,000 3,548,000

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Eye Institute
Authorizing legislation

PHS Act/Other Citation U.S. Code Citation 2010 Amount Authorized FY 2010 Estimate 2011 Amount Authorized FY 2011 PB
Research and Investigation Section 301 42§241 Indefinite Combined $706,765,000 Indefinite Combined $724,360,000
National Eye Institute Section 402(a) 42§281 Indefinite Indefinite
Total, Budget Authority 706,765,000 724,360,000

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Appropriations history

Fiscal
Year
Budget Estimate
to Congress
House
Allowance
Senate
Allowance
Appropriation
1/ Reflects enacted supplementals, rescissions, and reappropriations.
2/ Excludes funds for HIV/AIDS research activities consolidated in the NIH Office of AIDS Research.
2002 571,126,000 566,725,000 614,000,000 581,366,000
Rescission (653,000)
2003 625,666,000 625,666,000 637,290,000 637,290,000
Rescission (4,142,000)
2004 652,738,000 648,299,000 657,199,000 657,199,000
Rescission (4,147,000)
2005 671,578,000 671,578,000 680,300,000 674,578,000
Rescission (5,508,000)
2006 673,491,000 673,491,000 693,559,000 673,491,000
Rescission (6,735,000)
2007 661,358,000 661,358,000 666,898,000 667,166,000
2008 667,820,000 677,039,000 681,962,000 678,978,000
Rescission       (11,862,000)
Supplemental 3,548,0000
2009 667,764,000 690,721,000 687,346,000 688,276,000
2010 695,789,000 713,072,000 700,158,000 707,036,000
2011 724,360,000  

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Detail of full-time equivalent employment (FTE)

Office/Division FY 2009 Actual FY 2010 Enacted FY 2011 PB
FTEs supported by funds from Cooperative Research and Development Agreements
Office of the Director 77 78 81
Division of Intramural Research 124 125 130
Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications 12 12 12
Division of Extramural Research 28 29 32
Total 241 244 255
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research (0) (0) (0)

Details of Full-Time Equivalent Employment (FTEs)
(continued)

FISCAL YEAR Average GM/GS Grade
2007 12.2
2008 12.0
2009 12.1
2010 12.1
2011 12.1

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Detail of positions

Grade FY 2009 Actual FY 2010 Enacted FY 2011 PB
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research.
Total, ES Positions 1 1 1
Total, ES Salary $157,963 $161,800 $164,100
GM/GS-15 34 35 35
GM/GS-14 17 17 18
GM/GS-13 30 30 31
GS-12 24 25 26
GS-11 38 38 38
GS-10 0 0 0
GS-9 9 9 9
GS-8 7 7 7
GS-7 4 4 4
GS-6 2 2 2
GS-5 0 0 0
GS-4 3 3 3
GS-3 0 0 0
GS-2 0 0 0
GS-1 0 0 0
Subtotal 168 170 172
Grades established by Act of July 1, 1944 (42 U.S.C. 207):
Assistant Surgeon General 0 0 0
Director Grade 0 0 0
Senior Grade 2 2 2
Full Grade 0 0 0
Senior Assistant Grade 1 1 1
Assistant Grade 0 0 0
Subtotal 3 3 3
Ungraded 80 81 85
Total permanent positions 168 169 172
Total positions, end of year 252 255 260
Total full-time equivalent (FTE) employment, end of year 241 244 255
Average ES salary $157,963 $161,800 $164,100
Average GM/GS grade 12.1 12.1 12.1
Average GM/GS salary $99,467 $101,900 $103,300

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New positions requested

  FY 2011
  Grade Number Annual Salary
Health Science Administrator GS-15 1 $150,000
Senior Investigator, Tenured AD 1 190,000
Genetic Counselor AD 1 130,000
Postdoctoral Fellow AD 3 150,000
Computational Biologist AD 1 100,000
Grants Management Specialist GS-12 1 74,000
Program Analyst GS-11 1 62,000
Program Assistant GS-7 2 84,000
Total Requested   11  

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Department of Health and Human Services NIH, the National Institutes of Health USA.gov