Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU)
Subcutaneous injection of a sublethal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce an acute, anterior uveitis (iridocyclitis) in certain animal species including rats, mice, and rabbits. The histopathology of EIU is characterized by a transient but intense acute inflammatory cellular infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages, as well as protein accumulation in the anterior chamber and mild posterior vitritis. EIU usually peaks at 18-24 hours after LPS injection and lasts for 72 hours. Various cytokines and chemokines released by the infiltrating cells, such as TNF-alpha, INF-gamma, TGF-beta, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, CCL5, and inflammatory mediators are important in the development and modulation of EIU. T cells also play a role in EIU. Multiple genetic factors influence the susceptibility and magnitude of the response to LPS, including (non-histocompatibility) genetic background, the LPS response gene, and the presence of mast cells. EIU has become a useful model for the study of acute and subacute anterior ocular inflammation in humans.
Photomicrograph of endotoxin-induceduveitis (EIU) in the C3H/HeN mouse
Healthy anterior segment
Anterior segment of mouse with EIU
Note inflammatory cells adhering to cornea and iris